Investigating the Role of Spatial Diversity in Selecting Behavioral Patterns of Public Territory (Case Study: Zanjan's Pedestrian Zone)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Ph.D. student of urban planning, Central Tehran branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Iran


Public territory in cities has always served as a platform for the embodiment of behavioral patterns and interactive human actions in the environment. The qualitative method used in this study is behavioral observation, a modern approach to environmental design and the analysis of public territory, and a method to understand the mutual relationship between people and spaces. This study's main goal was to investigate conditions in which spatial diversity could help form specific behavioral patterns inside public territories. The main study question is: "Which behavioral patterns prevail in the areas under study based on space diversity? And how much do environmental factors contribute to space users' satisfaction? This method was investigated in sample Zanjan's pedestrian zone, the starting point of the city's main historical and commercial routes, subjected to degradation and transformation. The present study was applied and carried out in a survey form. The survey strategy was used to validate the study findings. Views obtained from 50 interviewees led to the extraction of some components constituting the reasons behind visiting a space. Zanjan's pedestrian zone faces a reduced volume of static activity and behavioral patterns in the mid-hours of the day, with the highest volume of traffic taking place from 4 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the other hand, a review of questionnaires on revisiting the space led to the identification of such factors as access to occupations, shopping, spending leisure, and finally, interactions.


Abbaszadegan, M., (2015). Social-psychological dimensions
of urban spaces. Scientific and Research Journal of
Engineering Sciences, 2015(5): 23.
Acero, J.; Karmele, HP. (2015). A comparison of thermal
comfort condition in four urban spaces using
measurements and modelling techniques. Building
and Environment, 2015, 93(2):245-257. https://doi.
Altman, I., (2013). The Environment and Social Behavior:
Privacy. Personal Space, Territory, and Crowding, ERIC
Bandarabad, A. R.; Shahcheraghi, A., (2015). Surrounded
by the environment: Environmental Psychology in Architecture and Urbanity. Jiahd Daneshgahi of Tehran
Organization, Tehran.
Barker, Ch.; Pistrang, N.; Elliot, R., (2019). Research Methods
in Clinical Psychology: An Introduction for Students
and Practitioners. Sixth ed. Publisher John Wiley &
Sons. Link
Baver, W. H., (1965). Territoriality and Home Range Concepts
as Applied to Mammals. Journal of Mammalogy,
Bierhof, H. W., (2018a). The Book of Desirable Social
Behaviors. The University of Chicago Press.
Bierhof, F., (2018b). Creation of an architectural theory
and the role of behavioral sciences in design the
environment. University of Tehran, Tehran.
Jabareen, Y., (2022). Building a conceptual framework:
philosophy, definitions, and procedure. International
Journal of Qualitative Methods. https://doi.
Jacobs, J., (2017). Life and death of large American Cites.
Trans. Hamid Reza Parsi and Arezou Aflatouni,
University of Tehran Press, Tehran.
Khatibi, S.M. (2012). The mutual influence of behavioral
patterns in revitalizing the identity of the city
environment, a case study of the entrance area of
Sanandaj. City identity, 7(13), 63-73.
Khormian Qahfarkhi, M. (2021), the application of
environmental-behavioral principles in environmental
design with regard to the capabilities of the artificial
environment in shaping behavioral patterns of
behavioral settlements, the 12th National Conference
on Urban Planning, Architecture, Construction
and Environment, Shirvan.
Lang, J., (2015). Creating Architectural Theory: The Role of
the Behavioral Sciences in Environment, VNB. U.K, Van
Nostrand Reinhold.
Lawson, B., (2012). The Language of Space. Butter-Worth-
Heinemann, London.
Mansouri, S. A., (2019). Urban landscape course. University
of Tehran: Campus of Fine Arts.
Mohammadian, Z.; Kaffashian, M.; Aseman-Darreh, Y.,
(2018). Measuring the effects of factors affecting the
formation of knowledge-sharing behavior from the
view of students (Case study: University of Ferdowsi).
Librarianship and Information, 7(1):153-176. https://
Pastalan, L., (2007). Beyond Culture. Garden city: Anchor
press. Anchor Press/ Doubleday.
Roberts, C., (2020). Angles on Environmental Psychology.
Nelson Thornes Ltd.
Sarei, M. H.; Hajforoush, Sh., (2019). Feasibility of
pedestrian zone and its effects on the revitalization of
the historical texture of cities, (Case study: Ghiam-e-
Shahr Street, Yazd). Geography of Development and
Region, 33:9-21.
Sholeh, M.; Sadeghi, A.; Najafi, P.; Khaksar, Z. (2016).
Evaluation of public areas based on observation and
analysis of activity-behavioral patterns (case study:
Ahmadi Shiraz sidewalk). Quarterly Journal of Urban
Studies, 7(25), 45-62.
Sennett, R., (2020). Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the
City. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Shami, G., (2018). Behavioral station for the environmental
analysis. Armanshahr Publication, Tehran.
Kamor Shlamani, A.; Hanachi, S. (2014). Investigating the
effect of visual factors of urban spaces on the behavioral
patterns of citizens (case study: Rasht Municipality
Square). City Identity, 9(24), 65-78. https://hoviatshahr.
Latifi, A., Sajjadzadeh, H. (2013). Evaluating the impact
of environmental quality components on behavioral
patterns in urban parks (case example: Hamadan
People’s Park). Quarterly Journal of Urban Studies,
3(11), 3-18.
Uskouei, A. B.; Shahbazi, Y.; Shahabi, E., (2017). Measuring
the concept of territory in public urban spaces
(Case study: Tehran’s Tabi’at Bridge). Scientific-
Research Quarterly Journal of Urban Studies, 27:5-7.
Ziari, Y.; Zarabadi, S.; Sadat, Z.; Majedi, H.; Hasani-
Mianroudi, N., (2017). Study of the concept of collective
memory and its manifestation in urban spaces using
semiotics (Case study: Hasan Abad Square). Baghe-
Nazari, 14(56):11-15.