Recognition and evaluation of urban spaces base on multimethodology approach (Case Study: 16 European Urban Squares)

Document Type : Case Study


1 Department of City and Regional Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey

2 Department of City Planning, Faculty of Urban Studies, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK


Urban design is a multi-level discipline that includes several branches of engineering and design, such as urban planning, urban development, architecture, landscape architecture, transportation, economics, and laws. Public places are places where people go for individual and collective action, and, because of the social nature of mankind, urban squares, as the most important expression of social nodes, represent urban democracy. The traditional assessment of urban space, such as Square, with regard to its specific qualitative dimensions, was more often thought to be a qualitative and general judgment that ultimately encouraged a range of values, such as Likert, or a zero-or-one human psychological property, for the type of content itself. Which generally led to a high error rate due to the quality of the evaluation. The purpose of the current research is to identify the nature of urban space with a phenomenological approach. The research is of a developmental nature, and first, using library resources and considering the collection and analysis of the concepts and categories of the subject of a social node such as cognitive classification square based on a matrix consisting of six cognitive criteria of supply Each of them is also subdivided according to the criteria. According to the cognitive process, 16 of the public spaces in Europe evaluated. Considering the result of the evaluation of the HSE model from the selected squares for analysis, the San Marco of Venice in Italy, with an accumulated numerical quality of 95%, is considered to be the highest European urban square.


  • Receive Date: 20 November 2022
  • Revise Date: 10 February 2023
  • Accept Date: 11 March 2023
  • First Publish Date: 02 April 2023